Coronary artery disease is caused by the damage of major blood vessels that supply blood to your heart. Inflammation and deposits of cholesterol usually play a major role in causing this disease. Coronary arteries supply nutrients, blood, and oxygen to the human heart.

Plaque build-up causes the narrowing of these arteries that leads to a decrease in the flow of blood to your heart. Reduced blood flow causes shortness of breath, chest pain or angina, and the development of signs and symptoms of other coronary artery diseases.

Coronary artery disease develops in the long term. You may not be aware of any problem related to the heart until you get a specific blockage or a sudden heart attack. Taking some healthy steps prevents you from coronary artery disease.

A healthy lifestyle has a great impact on this disease. It helps you to treat coronary artery disease well. Following are the significant symptoms of coronary artery disease.

Symptoms Of Coronary Artery Disease

  • Shortness of breath
  • Heart attack
  • Chest pain or angina

Causes Of Coronary Artery Disease

Any injury or damage to the coronary artery’s inner layer causes the disease of the coronary artery. Different factors are involved in causing the damage that may:

  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Sedentary lifestyle (not being active)

When the inner wall of an artery becomes damaged, plaques or fatty deposits of cellular waste and cholesterol start accumulating at the site of injury. This process is known as atherosclerosis. 

To repair the artery, blood cells start clumping together due to the break or ruptures of plaque surface at the site. This clump causes blockage of the artery that leads to a heart attack.

Diagnosis Of Coronary Artery Disease

A review of the medical history is required to diagnose coronary artery disease. Diagnosis includes medical testing and physical examination. Testing includes:

  1. Electrocardiogram

This test is used to monitor electrical signals. These signals travel through your heart. It helps your doctor to determine whether you have suffered a heart attack or not.

  1. Stress Test

This test particularly measures the level of stress on your heart during rest conditions or when you perform any physical activity. It monitors the electrical activity of your heart while walking on a treadmill or riding a bike. 

Nuclear imaging is also a part of this test. Instead of medical testing, specific medications are used for people who are not able to perform physical exercise.

  1. Cardiac Catheterization Or Left Heart Catheterization

The doctor injects a specific dye into your coronary artery with the help of a catheter that is inserted in your forearm or going through an artery during this procedure. The dye increases the radiographic image of coronary arteries in order to identify the blockage.

  1. Heart CT Scan

This testing is used to check the deposits of calcium in your arteries.

Treatments Used For Coronary Artery Disease

It is very important to control or reduce the risk factors and get proper treatment to lower the heart stroke or heart attack chance if your doctor has diagnosed you with coronary artery disease. 

Treatment depends on the risk factors, the current health condition of people, and their well-being. For example, you may get medications to control the level of sugar in your blood in case you have diabetes or your doctor may suggest medication therapy.

This therapy is used for the treatment of cholesterol or high blood pressure. Lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of stroke or heart disease. Following are some healthy lifestyle tips that help you to decrease the risk of CAD or coronary artery disease.

  • Exercise regularly
  • Quit smoking tobacco
  • Stop drinking alcohol or reduce it
  • Eat a healthy diet with low sodium and fat
  • Lose weight and maintain it to a healthy level

Cardiologist Doctors recommend some specific procedures to enhance the flow of blood to your heart if lifestyle changes and medications did not improve your condition. These procedures are given below.

  1. Balloon Angioplasty

It is used to smooth down the process of developing plaque and widen the blocked arteries. Doctors insert a stent in this treatment to keep the lumen open.

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

It is an open chest surgery that is used to restore the flow of blood to the heart.

  1. Enhanced External Counterpulsation

This non-invasive procedure is used to stimulate the small blood vessel formulation to bypass the clogged arteries naturally.